Turney, “Image and PR” (mycampus link)
1. What is the idea of image?
Answer: According to this link, the idea of image is something that is created to be put out for the public, to put an impression of a person or organization into the minds of the public. In the case of an image, it is usually the person or organization trying to put a positive spin on their face or on an organization to keep and to gain publics. Images try to bring people and/or organizations down to the level of the public to create a personal copy of their image for that individual Images are often created or “synthetic” according to this article. The idea of an image is to create an image that leaves an impression on its publics.
2. Why do people think image is bad?
Answer: People think “image” is bad because most people or organizations use only the positive pieces to create an image, but this image could be the complete opposite of the truth of a person or organization. Some organizations and people go really far to construct and project an image that may be the total opposite of the true morals and beliefs of a company. For example, any oil company that puts out an image that they contribute or support environmental causes is only for the benefit of their image. They create something that might not be there at all, because an oil company is out to drill in any place possible to retrieve, sell, and make profit on oil. When the world views a negative image, the look at public relations as the band aid on a broken arm; there is the assumption that public relations is only here to cover up and make a small attempt to bring a positive, but hide something super negative underneath. For these reasons, people see the idea of “image” as something negative in society that people try to make better.
3. How does Turney defend the idea of image?
Answer: Turney defends the idea of image with the fact that there is a “correlation that exists between the constructed image and the underlying reality that it’s presumed to represent.” In other words, there is not really a “good” or “bad” image, just a reality that is constructed by an organization or person that has the judgment of the general public creating what seems to be a “good” or “bad” image. Turney really describes an image being created by a response from the public; the general public can take this as good or bad and usually the majority wins in creating an image for some idea. Therefore, Turney defends the idea of image and puts the “blame” on the public’s response.
Gilpin “Organizational Image Construction” (pp. 265-8)
4. What is the idea of “reputation”?
Answer: The idea of “reputation” is something that is similar to an image, but it is a view that is created from both the organization/person and its publics. Many people use the term reputation to describe a person, and like the term “image,” “reputation” also has a first negative connotation when being used in society. The negativity of the word reputation is used about the same as the positivity for reputation. Several of the definitions in this particular article use the terms stakeholders and organization. Reputation is used not only to describe this organization, but it must be associated with the stakeholders, as they are a component in the structure of an organization. For example, an adult might not be attending a local high school, but they are considered a stakeholder to that organization through property taxes. Schools are one example of how there is a reputation; you here it all of the time with locations of high schools in Cedar Rapids, especially with Cedar Rapids Washington. In conclusion, the idea of reputation comes from parts inside and outside an organization.
5. What is the difference between intended image and construed image
Answer: The difference between intended image and construed image has to deal with the relationship between the stakeholder and organization. An intended image deals with an organization creating and identity and tries to give a projection of this identity out to its stakeholders. The idea of construed image talks about the concern internal members of an organization have over the “external” stakeholders of an organization. The real difference is one tries to project its own identity without research of the stakeholders feelings, while the construed image takes into consideration its external stakeholders opinions, responses or feelings about its organization.
6. What is “image construction”?
Answer: Image construction is “the self-presentation processes used to build and maintain a particular set of perceptions among stakeholders regarding the organization’s identity.” In other words, image construction deals with several strategies that an organization takes to create a strong image to its stakeholders, with several more strategies in order to keep up that strong identity. An organization has a wall and it needs to support that wall with different strategies and tactics to keep its stakeholders “staked” into the organization. Image construction examples include created feature pieces for the media to grab to present to the public.
7. From what you can tell, what does she seem to think is the relationship between image and reputation?
Answer: The relationship between image and reputation is based on the social context. An image and reputation both rely on reactions and responses from the external stakeholders of an organization. Image and reputation are in the hands of society and how an organization is seen in society. These are the foundations for an organization’s image and reputation. The image and reputation are very strongly linked to one another. Media is also another link to image and reputation and the media portrays the organization in either a good or bad way; putting out an image for stakeholders, with stakeholders returning the favor of building them a reputation.
Image Repair Theory: an overview (mycampus link)
8. Explain the basic concept of image repair theory
Answer: The basic concept of image repair theory consists of two parts: “1. The accused is held responsible for an action,” and “2. The act is considered offensive.” With an organization in mind, the organization must take the blame for a wrong doing that has affected society; this act must be offensive to society, or go against the norms of society. One example of something current in American society is the image repair of Lance Armstrong. In his interview with Oprah, Armstrong took full responsibility for his actions in using illegal performance-enhancing substances to win seven Tour de France titles and other competitions. The reason it was offensive to society is because society sees cheating as a negative norm; it is something that conflicts with the values of several cultures. Second, Lance Armstrong had important ties to such organizations as Nike and his Livestrong campaigns with the yellow wrist bands. Several members in the public did not look at those wrist bands the same after his confession; yet, Armstrong came out and confessed which shows how his situation falls into that of the basic concept of image repair theory.
9. Summarize, in your own words, the five basic strategies that (according to Benoit), organizations use to restore their image; be able to indicate the different versions of these strategies
Answer: The five different strategies, used by Benoit,that organizations use to restore their image are denial, evasion of responsibility, reduce offensiveness, corrective action and mortification. Denial refers to the idea that an organization tries to stay away or avoid the negative situation completely in order to repair its image to society. An organization usually comes out just to put blame on someone else. Evasion of responsibility refers to the concept of letting an excuse or lack of supportive information take the blame for a mishap by an organization. The reduction of offensiveness states that an organization takes actions to lessen the harshness of an wrongful action to make it appear not as bad to its publics. The concept of corrective action talks about an organization stepping in to correct the situation by trying to completely reverse the wrong doing by a company. Mortification is in reference to an organization going to the public an asking to be forgiven by all publics. Mortification makes the company appear to be a beggar and weak to its publics.