“What is Public Relations?”: The Agents of Public Relations

In the profession of public relations, there are more public relations specialists than public relations managers.  Public relations managers are the high-end jobs of public relations; these managers have the most experience in the profession of public relations, dealing with more parts of the process than public relations specialists.  Public relations specialists consist mostly of entry-level jobs and jobs who are occupied by people with less experience.  Public relations specialists deal with the implementation part of the public relations process.  As public relations specialists gain more experience in the profession of public relations, they start to move up in management and can work with the other parts of the public relations process.  Some people cannot handle more than one part of the public relations process; therefore, there are more specialists than managers in the profession of public relations.

Five organizational structures exist in the profession of public relations: public relations agencies; corporations; government; nonprofit organizations or trade associations; and independent public relations consultants.  Public relations agencies are companies that make contracts with clients and give public relations services for these clients; public relations is all that goes on in these companies.  Corporations are usually large companies, which have the ability to sustain their own public relations department within the internal part of the company; the public relations practitioners are company employees. The government has public relations units that are paid for by taxpayers; the public relations practitioners are government employees who give information on government policies and help to present vital information to help the functions of a democracy.  Non-profit organizations and trade associations have practitioners who are employees, strictly working in the interests and benefits of these organizations.  Independent public relations consultants are self-employed workers usually taking clients on a per-job basic; these jobs can be part-time, depending on the availability of jobs to do for the independent.

Public relations is a profession and is continuing to gather strength among other professions in the fast-pace world.  Public relations are vital in corporations and large organizations because they are dependent on the practitioner to catch potential publics and to keep existing publics interested in the functions of the organization.  A person can have a good career on the idea of making relationships with publics and clients.  In a world filled with social media networks, the idea of building relationships must exist; therefore, public relations has the status of profession because practitioners will always be needed, making for a wide range of public relations professions.

Public relations is different in each type of work setting, especially ranging from corporations to being an independent consultant of public relations.  Corporations use public relations when dealing with different publics; for example, practitioners in a corporation may specifically deal with the media or the government, which is called media relations or government relations.  Public relations practitioners are usually put in more specific areas because the publics are larger than in smaller functions. Nonprofit organizations and trade associations follow the same ideas of a corporations with slightly different specifics.  Instead of having investor relations, such as corporations, nonprofits have donor relations and member relations for public relations practitioners.  Trade associations have similar areas of public relations as non-profits, but have marketing communications.  Public relations in the governments has four specific public to deal with: voters, news media, employees and special interests groups.  The job titles of public relations practitioners in the government deal are press secretaries, public information officers, public affairs officers, and communications specialists.  Public relations agencies have practitioners deal with the other different work settings public relations is present in such as: corporations, governments, trade associations and non-profits.  Agencies also help individuals who are clients with public relations services.  Independent public relations consultancies are public relations practitioners who offer a smaller range of services to clients because it is an individual giving public relations services.

Public relations managers and public relations technicians are different in the functions of each occupation.  Public relations managers are the people who solve problems, advise other managers and help to create key strategic ways for clients.  Public relations managers are found in mostly in organizations who work in fast-pace areas, dealing with several changes, going in different directions.  Public relations technicians rarely advise others and rarely make vital strategic decisions.  Public relations technicians are the ones who prepare communications that will help the public relations policies, created by such people as the public relations managers, move forward in helping clients and organizations.


“What is Public Relations?”: Strategies and Tactics in Public Relations

Strategies are the specific paths put out by a practitioner for an organization to accomplish certain goals.  The strategies are detailed and use the values of an organization to help accomplish the goals.  Without strategies, a company would not be able to accomplish goals, and would not survive.  Tactics are the fine details in the public relations process that are a part of a strategy to help an organization.  Tactics are the super specific parts and help in the step-by-step process.  Tactics also help to achieve the objectives in the planning process for an organization by a public relations practitioner.

Special events are great examples of public relations strategy because they allow organizations to hold events for employees to show their appreciation for the employees in their organization.  Special events also show publics that support the organization from an external point that the organization cares about its employees.  Special events allow people to speak their minds about certain ideas, which in return give the organization ideas to change or make better the organization’s functions.  Special events are vital when reaching out the publics of an organization, allowing for feedback and support from the external and internal publics of an organization.

An organization cannot use the same kinds of tactics for all publics; each public has its own unique interest in an organization.  When an organization reaches out to different publics, it must take into account the values and interests of that public in order to obtain the interest needed to bring the public on board with the organization.  Tactics are specific in detail, therefore, the details are different from public to public.  For example, an organization must not use the image of the male in all publics because the effect will cause the women of publics to lose interest in an organization.  Certain tactics and adjustments must be made in order to keep the interests of such publics, such as females.

The two skills listed by PR Week that are essential for entry-level public relations practitioners are public speaking and writing skills.  These skills are at the heart of public relations because a practitioner must be dependable for having clear presentation of ideas and have the ability to write without error.  In the world, organizations want to be represented as being perfect in flawless; so these organizations rely on the practitioner to follow through with superb writing and presentation skills.  A public relations practitioner must have the ability to present in front of an audience without fear or grammatical error.  Jobs for practitioners are based on these essential, crucial, and basic skills of public relations.

Writing relates to relationship management because a public relations practitioner must have a trusted relationship with several clients, and must live up to the grammatical standards of each client.  Writing also is important in the relationship management because it helps to public gain trust of an organization through the written proof of values and good characteristics.  The skill of writing is the priority of a public relations practitioner because it is the practitioner that presents the organization to the publics.  For example, if a practitioner fails with grammatical errors in a report about goals/values of an organization, the organization can break off ties with the practitioner; it can be a losing situation for the practitioner.

A public relations practitioner must be concerned with social media because society is slowly engaging in social network relationships between organizations and publics through social media networks.  A practitioner must have the ability to use new technology and different strategies that include these social networks to keep relationships between strong between organizations and their publics.  A public relations practitioner must have the ability to work with traditional relationships and indirect relationships through social networks.  Practitioners must also monitor the relationships between all their organizations and publics.  The world of technology has gotten a whole lot faster and public relations practitioners must be on the same speed.

Virtual public relations is the networking of small, independent public relations consultants.  These are individual practitioners who can run a business by themselves over telephones, fax machines, and the Internet.  These types of virtual business compete with traditional public relations agencies for organizations.  Virtual public relations allows public relations consultants to work with organizations that may be thousands of miles away.  For example, a public relations consultant using virtual public relations has the ability to work with a company in China and Argentina at the same time without travel.  The consultants can go through the process of public relations and help organizations without leaving to go anywhere, thanks to the convenience of technology.  Virtual public relations is the field of the future for individuals looking to start their own business.

“What is Public Relations?”: Making PR ethical? Really?

Values are in important to an organization and a public relations practitioner must remain loyal to these values while in the process of research; this is called values-driven public relations.  The basic idea of values-driven public relations is to incorporate and stay focused on the values of an organization all of the way through the four steps of research.  The consideration of the values from the organization and the publics are focused in research, planning, evaluation, and communication.  The steps the process do not happen in order because new values and principles are discovered during the process.

When in the process of public relations, a practitioner and organization to adhere to the values of the publics.  Organizations are supported by these publics, therefore, an organization must hold the values of the publics in with their own values.  In the process, there are two sets of values that a practitioner must keep in mind; of course, the values of the publics are what matter most to the practitioner and the organization.  The mutual satisfaction phase of public relations is the modern era, stating that both sets of values are important to a public relations practitioner.

Ethics, according to the textbook, are beliefs about right and wrong that guide the way we think and act.  In public relations, practitioners must follow a code of ethics when dealing with the public relations process, organizations, and their publics.  Ethics help the profession of public relations by giving a sense of trust and honesty to organizations and publics.  Ethics are a way of achieving goals with a positive outcome in mind.  If a practitioner does not use ethics properly, they may lose the trust of organizations in helping to accomplish wishful goals.  Ethics must be priorities in the profession of public relations practitioners.

There are several different codes in ethics such as societal codes, professional codes, and organizational codes.  Societal codes are followed by mass amounts of people and are followed in a religious fashion.  Societal codes are seen is such cultures of Judeo-Christian, especially the ten commandments.  People follow societal codes because it is a part of their culture, and is in their nature to keep following these codes not only in their professions, but in their daily lives.  Professional codes are codes of ethics formed by a large professional organizations, such as public relations.  These codes do not have to be followed by professionals, but in such organizations of professionals, the people are asked to follow these ethics.  Organizational codes are ethics employees of an organization must read, sign and follow.  These codes can be changed, evaluated, and drafted by a committee in the organization.

Corporate social responsibility is a philosophy followed by many organizations which has the organization help to improve the quality of people’s lives.  There are seven standards in the corporate social responsibility which include human rights, labor, and security; enterprise and economic development; business standards and corporate governance; health promotion; education and leadership development; human disaster relief; and environment; these standards help to give an organization a good name among many publics.  An organization can build relationships off of these standards by giving time and money to help certain causes; for example, several organizations, such as the Red Cross, helped to heal the pain that had been brought to Haiti following the tragic earthquake.  The public then puts the Red Cross in the positive image of giving help when help is needed.  The corporate social responsibility is very important to the survival of an organization.

There are six core values in the code of ethics for the Public Relations Society of America.  The values are advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence, loyalty, and fairness.  Advocacy deals with the practitioners representing their organizations and publics in a positive image.  Honesty deals with the truth and accuracy of information presented to the public by the practitioner in the likes of an organization.  Expertise deals with the knowledge and experience a practitioner has to help accomplish the goals of an organization.  Independence deals with the responsibility of a practitioner for their actions and in representing an organization.  Loyalty deals with the dedication a practitioner has to an organization and their publics, to be a “servant” to both groups.  Fairness states a practitioner must be fair and unselfish with the organization and their publics; a practitioner must respect the opinions and new ideas of an organization in each stage of the public relations process.  These codes are followed by the practitioners of the Public Relations Society of America.

“What is Public Relations?”: Has PR been Ethical?

The first phase of public relations was the publicity phase of public relations.  Historians say the first phase was associated with promoting organizations and advertising organizations.  Some would use negatives, seeing the advertising of such companies as being negative for the audience.  Early public relations practitioners were all about getting the message out to the audience.  The second phase of public relations was considered the explanatory phase of pubic relations.  The explanatory phase of public relations dealt with the specifics of an organization’s message; using great detail to gain the support of the audience was the idea of the explanatory phase.  The explanatory phase also included organizations and the statement of certain actions by an organization to give the audience members the knowledge to judge or support an organization.  The third and current phase of public relations is the mutual satisfaction phase of public relations.  The mutual satisfaction phase of public relations talks about the actions of a public relations practitioner in helping both sides, which includes the public and the organization.  This phase talks about making compromises between the two sides so both are can be “satisfied”.

The leaders of the American Revolution used prehistoric public relations in order to create the United States of America.  The idea of these early American leaders was to convince the public to join in the cause for independence.  The public would be the American colonists who were tired of the taxes from Great Britain and the representation that was truly nonexistent in Parliament.  American patriots used the fire of the American people to write articles and such, convincing them to join the Revolution.  The “public relations practitioners” of the American Revolution came about from the public with the same experiences of the public.  The American leaders fired up the spirits of the American colonists with their goals: independence and freedom.  Clearly, the American revolution and the “practitioners” of the revolution accomplished their goals, creating the United States of America and prehistoric public relations.

Ivy Lee was very influential in the development of public relations.  Lee was the infamous man who caused future public relations practitioners to use ethical standards when dealing with clients or organizations.  Lee would often get himself into trouble because he would make statements about several clients without making sure the information he was passing along to the public was true.  Lee was disrespected for not following up statements with true information of a client.  Lee worked in the publicity phase of public relations and he was one who would present to the public information, but sometimes having untrustworthy information about the client.

Edward Bernays is considered to be the father of public relations with his success of helping clients and coming up with the two-way communication concept of the public relations process.  Bernays defended the term “public relations” to the best of his ability, trying to persuade the public that he was not a man of propaganda and publicity.  Of course, Bernays became self-promoted of himself which caused him to lose several ties with organizations.  Bernays talked of using social and intellectual values, especially when dealing with the public.  Bernays was in two phases of public relations, the explanatory phase of public relations and the mutual satisfaction phase of public relations.  Bernays brought to the table the understanding of values in society and how the public can relate to given values.

The textbook states both men were not saints because in some way, they gave public relations a bad name in their mistakes.  For example, Lee sent out messages to the public about clients without truthful information.  Lee caused himself to become infamous, especially when he denied his wrong doings.  Bernays created havoc for himself by giving the satisfaction to himself through self-promotion.  History has not given a true leader to public relations; public relations has built a foundation on several mistakes.

The profession of public relations still faces questions about its values and integrity because the profession has been shown as a way for crooks and criminals to create a bad image for the profession; yet, there are thousands of individuals who have made public relations a respectable profession. Of course, it seems society always points out the negative points and not so much the good points; the phrase, “nice guys finish last” fits in pretty well when giving a spotlight to public relations. Lee and Bernays scarred the profession of public relations so much, that the effects can still be seen today.   Public relations, as a profession, has also been considered good and evil at the same time.  The history of public relations has caused society to look at the profession of public relations and question its values and integrity.


“What is Public Relations?”: Orientation Through this Crazy Place called PR

Goals, objectives, strategies and tactics are all part of the planning process to accomplish an idea for an organization; yet they differ from each other in the size of the concept.  When a person talks about goals, they are talking about the big aims of accomplishing a task, the general intentions of the organization.  Objectives, strategies and tactics are small components that help organizations to accomplish their set goals.  Objectives deal with the ability to have something measurable in the goals of an organization; there needs to be a quantity and a time frame in the objectives.  Strategies are the action plans set out to accomplish the objectives; these are ways to get to your goals.  Tactics deal with the specific, detailed actions in the strategy; the step-by-step process of a strategy to let the other steps of the process fall into place for an organization.

The type of plan surrounding the Cedar Valley Humane Society is an Ad Hoc plan.  An ad hoc plan has to do with creating a plan to help an organization with misperceptions it had within in a time frame, giving an organization a bad name.  An ad hoc plan is a temporary plan which gives an organization hopes of returning to good relations with lost publics and current publics.  The idea of an ad hoc plan is to give an organization a positive spotlight in the news media and other outlets to cancel out the bad spotlight it has in the present.  The plan will not be ongoing for the longest time, just until an organization can get over the hump.

When comparing the terms between the book and the website, they all are similar with the exception of a few points.  The book does a better job of giving more elaborate descriptions of the terms and how to apply them to situations.  For example, goals must be consistent with an organization’s values and mission statement; objectives are seen as targeting specific publics and their should be at least six objectives when going through a planning process.  Strategies and tactics are given similar descriptions both in the book and the website.

A proposal is simply an extension of a plan to give it the ability to be “sold” to a client.  The proposal is a presentation from of the plan which includes an executive summary, a situation analysis, a statement of purpose, followed by the presentation of the plan.  The executive summary talks of the problems or opportunities in the plans, as well as targeted publics and several tactics.  The situation analysis speaks of the current situation in the organization; and a statement of purpose is a lead into the actually plan being proposed to the organization.

The quality plan, indicated in the textbook, deals with several key components to help a practitioner “sell” a plan to an organization.  A good plan must support a specific goal of an organization; the practitioner must show the organization that the goal is specified towards helping the organization.  A good plan must stay goal-oriented, which means the focus should always be on the goal at all times and the goals should not disappear over time.  A good plan has to be realistic in order for the organization to see positive outcome of the goals set; a practitioner should not promise more than they can achieve.  A good plan must be flexible and have the ability to change in favor of the organization.  A good plan must give success to the practitioner and the organization; the plan must not be one-sided, especially if it benefits the practitioner more than the client.  The most important element of a good plan is the idea of a plan being value-driven; when drafting a plan, a practitioner must keep in mind the values of an organization.  These are elements for a good plan for the success of a practitioner and organization.

“What is Public Relations?”: The Research You Need to Know

The process of public relations is summed up in a simple four-part model laid out for all public relations practitioners.  The four steps of the model are research, planning, communication, and evaluation.  These four steps are helpful in the basic learning of public relations, but it is not an exact replica of public relations in the real world.  The first step, research, explains how a public relations practitioner must look at all aspects of an organization.  These aspects include the history of the organization, the publics important to the organization, and the opportunities and challenges of a company.  The second step, planning, talks about the strategy put together by the practitioner from the information gathered in the research process.  Practitioners use this to plan out effective and efficient strategies for the organization and its publics.  The third step, communication, is considered the “execution phase of the public relations process.”  Practitioners use communication to communicate goals between the organization and its publics to help these two groups work together for the sake of the organization’s survival.  Finally, the fourth step of evaluation, is the post report or “measurement” of how the public relations practitioner accomplished the organization’s goals.  This final step proves what public relations practitioners are the best and the worst.

When Guth and Marsh talk about the public relations process as being a dynamic, nonlinear process, it means the steps of the process do not fall into place, one after the other in the real world.  Ideas and goals of an organization can change on a day-to-day basis, causing the steps to become intermixed and all done at the same time.  For example, evaluation is done at all points of the process to help get rid of flaws that can be found along the way.  Another example would be the addition of extra research to help with background information for constant change of the goals in an organization.  The dynamic, nonlinear model really is the process of real world public relations.

The problems that tend to be involved with public relations research is the several different research strategies and gathering the right information to close in on the goals of an organization.  Research methods are chosen based on the intention of the goals, and the publics who are focused on by the organization.  Research can be done  about the clients or the stakeholders, maybe even the evaluation of the public relations project.  Research can also cause trouble with the multitudes of information about an organization.  For example, a company such as Rockwell-Collins has a long history as a business, and some of the history may not apply to the current problems or goals of the modern Rockwell-Collins.  The abundance of information can be a bad thing and a good thing all at the same time; this explains how research can have trouble spots for public relations practitioners.

Research and evaluation are important to the public relations process because it helps to discover the problems/opportunities of an organization, and it helps to change the organization to better the relationships they have with their publics.  Research does a lot to bring up several problems that could cause troubles down the road; the result of finding these problems in research helps the organization move forward in progress.  Research also stumbles upon golden opportunities that may have cost organizations money or important clients, which could possibly lead to the downfall of an organization.  Evaluation helps to look for problems and opportunities at the end of the process.  This helps an organization to look over how everything went with the public relations process, and how it can do better in future projects.

There are many differences between client research and stakeholder research in the public relations process of research.  Client research has to do with the type of client, company, or organization the practitioner is working for to help with goals.  The research goes into detail about the client; for example, the types of products and services offered by an organization and the mission of an organization.  These important aspects help a practitioner to make better the intended goals of an organization to present to their publics.  Stakeholder research deals with the research of the different publics that help to give success to the organization.  These publics include the people working for the organization and the publics that have a part in the organization’s operations.  Stakeholder research is very important in the research process because a practitioner must take into account the mass amounts of different attitudes and ideas of the stakeholders.

Secondary or library research is very helpful when trying to find public information about a client’s history in the media and other sources.  A practitioner can find multitudes of information in pubic materials, such as newspaper and magazine articles, library references, etc.  to help see the public data presented of the organization; online databases can also be published material for the practitioner.  Organizational records are types of information that include annual reports, statistics, financial reports and other documents that must be presented to the public by law.  Finally, there are public records generated by governments which offer multitudes of information, such as the U.S. Census and the monthly reports of the nations’ economies; all are helpful, especially with information about an organization.  Secondary research is a basic skill that can be used because a person utilizes it all the way through schooling, and it can be beneficial in the real world.

Communication audits are research procedures used to see if an organization is sticking to its values and mission statements, while trying to reach out to new publics and while obtaining existing publics.  These audits also look at an organization’s communications and public records to see if the organization is following the right path.  Audits also have meetings with the key officials of a company to see if everything is going smoothly from the top down.  Communication audits help the organizations to stay out of trouble with such things as the federal government.

Focus groups are groups of researchers that use an informal research method to select a certain group of people to come and give their opinion about a certain organization and the functions of an organization.  The results of research of a focus group do not represent the population as a whole, but it helps the organization to have some public opinions and such about the organization.  The focus groups are inexpensive and can give researchers immediate feedback when they have face to face interviews with selected people.  Focus groups also can help to select “fair” survey questions that would be unnecessary in a survey sent out by mail.  The focus group is a more personal way to get immediate feedback and save the organization some time.

Survey research is used when the organization does not have enough information out publicly for the practitioner to use in gathering information.  The survey research is a last resort for most organizations because it is time-consuming and expensive for the company; yet, it is very helpful with the precise results.  The amount of results given by the publics help the practitioner when other information is scarce.  The survey research can also be helpful because of its efficiency with computer analysis and sorting, allowing the practitioner to help the organization target the right group of publics.  Survey research and the quality of the results depends on the composition of people taking the survey and the setup of the survey instrument; without the quality setup, the results may be inaccurate and useless for the practitioner and the organization.

“What is Public Relations?”: The ‘Public’s and ‘Relations’hips

According to Guth and Marsh, a stakeholder is ” a public that has an interest in an organization or in an issue potentially involving that organization.” Stakeholders substitutes for the public in most cases because it specifically talks about the kind of public that is heavily involved in an organization. For example, when talking about stakeholders in a business, they are the employees who work for the organization.  A question may arise as to why the employees are considered stakeholders or public? Employees are considered a key public because the company must look into their best interests to keep them inside the organization.  Stakeholders can sometimes be a group of investors in an organization and such, and the company must also do the same to keep them interested in the goals and values of the organization.

A public is “any group whose members have a common interest or common values in a particular situation.  A public can be an insider group, such as the stakeholders, or a group outside of the organization looking into the interests presented to the public.  The public is the variety of audiences that organizations try to connect to through public relations practitioners.  Publics cover a large number of different groups of people with many interests, which makes it difficult for organizations to try and connect with all, which usually leads to a public making a connection with the organization.

The concept of the resource dependency theory consists of three ideas to give organizations a successful path to obtaining the resources needed to help the organization survive among the different groups of publics.  The first idea states a company has to fulfill their values with resources, such as raw materials and people to work for the organization.  The organization cannot function without resources and people to help the organization move forward.  The second idea states that some of those key resources are not controlled by the organization; in other words, the organization does not have the resources available to it when it is needed.  The third idea states an organization must acquire these key resources and they must do this by building productive relationships with the publics that control the resources.  The organization must convince the publics to let the organization use the resources, and in return, the organization must give something to the publics.  The resource dependency theory helps organizations to obtain the resources they want by attracting certain publics to their organization.

Since there is an endless supply of publics in the world, researchers have categorized publics in to certain categories to account for all of them.  First, there are traditional and nontraditional publics; traditional publics are groups that have long-term relationships with organization and keep those relationships going.  Nontraditional publics are groups that are unfamiliar with the goals and values of an organization.  Organizations try to connect with the nontraditional groups to create relationships.  There are subcategories that fall into fall into these two general categories which are as follows: Latent, Aware, Active, Intervening, Primary, Secondary, Internal, external, domestic and international Publics.  A latent public is a group that creates a relationship with an organization without the members in the organization knowing of the new relationship. An aware public is a group of members who are ‘aware’ of the crossing of values between another group but have not developed a response to the relationship.  An active public is a group who is working on certain terms to keep a relationship going between them and the organization with recognition.  An intervening public is a group who helps to send a message to another public about the organization.  Then there are primary and secondary publics; the primary public is the most important public to an organization while secondary publics are other groups that are still important to the organization.  Next, there are internal and external publics; internal means the group is inside the organization and the external are outside the organization.  Domestic publics are groups inside a countries’ borders, for instance American groups inside the United States; international publics are groups outside a countries’ borders, such as an American organization having a public in Canada.  As a person can see, there are several different categories of publics in society.

Traditional publics in public relations are the groups that have consistent relationships with the organization.  The traditional public of an organization include the employees, investors, and customers/consumers, who help the organization by investing labor and money into the functions and structure of the organization.  The businesses which help to distribute products and services of the organization to groups of people.  The news media is a public who helps give a spotlight of the organization through news stories and pitches to help get an image of the organization out to the mass population and other nontradtional publics.  The government also helps the organization with creating an image, with local, state, and federal recognition of the organization.  Other traditional publics in public relations include multicultual community groups, which encompass religious, social and other groups so the organization can have a namesake for being multicultural and in return be appealing toward outside publics.

Relationship management is easy to understand in the area of public relations; it is the duty of a public relations to keep multiple relationships with the organization and the public.  A practitioner must have the ability to keep these relationships a float to help the organization to survive.  Practitioners also work and do research to help better the existing relationships between organizations and publics.  The balancing act a public relations practitioner is vital to the success of an organization, without the ability to balance multiple relationships, certain publics feel left out and then drop their support of an organization.  In those cases, practitioners must be honest when revealing certain, and sometimes, unpopular truths to a public or organization.  Without honesty, relationships can fall apart, causing the organization to become somewhat disrupted by the letdown of the practitioner.

In the book by Guth and Marsh, they present a communication model used between publics and organizations to create strong relationships.  The communication model consists of six concepts.  One concept, noise, takes into consideration the  ways communication can be enveloped or inhibited.  For example, different forms can be physical and audible, such as noise from a large crowd.  Inaudible noise would take into consideration a person’s thoughts racing inside their minds, which inhibit outside noise and ideas from entering their mind.  Noise can come from both sides in the communication between a public and organization.  The first official part of the communication model deals with the source, the place where communication originates; a source can be influenced by a variety of factors such as reputation, context and communication ability.  The second part of the model id the message, which is the content of the communication.  The message success relies on the knowledge of both the purpose of the message and the intended receiver.  The next part of the communication model is the channel, which is a medium helping the message to get to the intended receiver.  If the message, does not get to the intended receiver, than communication is lost.  The fourth part of the communication model is the receiver, which is the group for which the message was intended.  The final part of the communication model is the feedback, which is the reaction to the message by the receiver.  The communication model is vital when keeping relationships between the publics and the organization, especially when the organization is trying to survive through dependence on communication with the publics.